Having taken control of the Missourian settlements, the Mormons plundered the property and burned the stores and houses. Around 200 non-Mormons gathered in Gallatin on election day to prevent Mormons from voting. had committed crimes during the 1838 disturbances in northern Missouri.  Brigham Young recounts that, once the militia was disarmed, Lucas's men were turned loose on the city: [T]hey commenced their ravages by plundering the citizens of their bedding, clothing, money, wearing apparel, and every thing of value they could lay their hands upon, and also attempting to violate the chastity of the women in sight of their husbands and friends, under the pretence of hunting for prisoners and arms.  On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to the Missourian settlements of Gallatin, Millport and Grindstone Fork. Although county officials could only legally act within the county, this judge authorized Hinkle to defend Latter Day Saint settlements in neighboring Daviess County. Fearing attack, many citizens of Ray County moved their wives and children across the Missouri River for safety.   William Peniston, a candidate for the state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons, calling them "horse-thieves and robbers",  and warned them not to vote in the election. The men under the command of Lucas were then allowed to ransack the city to search for weapons.  Reynolds determined the man in question was Porter Rockwell, a close associate of Joseph Smith. Ebenezer Robinson described the scene at Far West, "General Clark made the following speech to the brethren on the public square:...'The orders of the governor to me were, that you should be exterminated, and not allowed to remain in the state, and had your leaders not been given up, and the terms of the treaty complied with, before this, you and your families would have been destroyed and your houses in ashes.'". According to an article in the Elders' Journal – a Latter Day Saint newspaper published in Far West – "The Saints here are at perfect peace with all the surrounding inhabitants, and persecution is not so much as once named among them...".  The citizens of De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge King and General Parks for assistance. ", http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/findingaids/miscMormonRecords.asp?rec=doc, http://books.google.com/books?id=TcfYO8JFElcC, "An appeal to the American people : being an account of the persecutions of the Church of Latter Day Saints, and of the barbarities inflicted on them by the inhabitants of the state of Missouri", http://patriot.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/NCMP1820-1846&CISOPTR=2837&REC=4, "Mormonism in All Ages; or the Rise, Progress and Causes of Mormonism; with the Biography of Its Author and Founder, Joseph Smith, Jr", http://ia600401.us.archive.org/31/items/mormonisminalla00turn/mormonisminalla00turn.pdf, Sidney Rigdon: A Portrait of Religious Excess, Mel Tungate's Battle of Crooked River sources website, History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 2 Chapter 11, Length of U.S. participation in major wars, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/1838_Mormon_War?oldid=4529152, Mormons stripped of property and expelled from Missouri. , During the days that followed, Latter Day Saint vigilantes under the direction and encouragement of Lyman Wight drove Missourians who lived in outlying farms from their homes, which were similarly plundered and burned. , During a transfer to another prison in the spring of 1839, Smith escaped. , None of the Missourians were ever prosecuted for their role in the Haun's Mill Massacre. Joseph Smith and the criminal justice system, Office of the Secretary of State of Missouri 1841, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1968, http://lds-church-history.blogspot.com/2009/06/lds-history-october-14-1838.html, "The Extermination Order and How it was Rescinded", Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 1920, http://ldsliving.com/story/77142-porter-rockwell-7-unbelievable-facts-and-stories-you-didnt-know, "Clarification of Boggs' 'Order' and Joseph Smith's Constitutionalism", "Mormonism. Later that day, the Carroll County forces sealed off the town.  Other Latter Day Saint witnesses remembered that Smith said to "beg like a dog for peace". which rallied the Mormons and allowed them to drive off their opponents..  One resolution passed by the Quincy town council read: Resolved: That the gov of Missouri, in refusing protection to this class of people when pressed upon by an heartless mob, and turning upon them a band of unprincipled Militia, with orders encouraging their extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace upon the state over which he presides.. Hinkle and Murdock refused, citing their right as American citizens to settle where they pleased. William Bowman, one of the guards, was dragged by his hair across the town square. Author: Whitman, Dale A. , Some isolated Mormons in outlying areas also came under attack. This page discusses several common allegations and questions about the band of "Danites" in Missouri in 1838 and reviews the relevant history of that era.It is another page in the suite of Frequently Asked Questions About Latter-day Saint Beliefs.This is the personal work of Jeff Lindsay.  Although he was sympathetic to the Mormons' plight, Doniphan reminded the Latter Day Saints that the Caldwell County militia could not legally enter Daviess County, and he advised Mormons traveling there to go in small parties and unarmed. Their economic cohesion allowed the Mormons to dominate local economies. He surmised that the perpetrator had fired upon Boggs and lost his firearm in the night when the weapon recoiled due to its unusually large shot. , Most Mormons gathered to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. My brigade shall march for Liberty to-morrow morning, at 8 o'clock, and if you execute those men, I will hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God! Although a short war, it affected more than ten thousand Mormons in Missouri. To William Wines Phelps, a fellow Latter-day Saint and witness to the events, Hinkle wrote: "When the facts were laid before Joseph, did he not say, 'I will go'; and did not the others go with him, and that, too, voluntarily, so far as you and I were concerned?". A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter-day Saints to leave. 1 While anti-Mormon vigilantes targeted and sometimes killed noncombatant Latter-day Saints, ... Related Topics: Mormon-Missouri War of 1838, Extermination Order, Hawn’s Mill Massacre.  On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to Daviess County. which rallied the Mormons and allowed them to drive off their opponents.. Once Latter-day Saints were disarmed, mounted squads visited Mormon settlements with threats and enough beatings and destruction of homes to force flight. Judge Josiah Morin and Samuel McBrier, both considered friendly to the Mormons, both fled Daviess County after being threatened. " Some Latter-day Saints claimed that some of the Missourians burned their own homes in order to blame the Mormons. , When the Mormons heard a rumor that Judge Adam Black was gathering a mob near Millport, one hundred armed men, including Joseph Smith, surrounded Black's home.  Possession became unclear and the dissenters threatened the church with lawsuits. One of the Mormons present, Samuel Brown, claimed that Peniston's statements were false and then declared his intention to vote. One of the Mormons present, Samuel Brown, claimed that Peniston's statements were false and then declared his intention to vote. A militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 miles (9.7 km) east to west and 1-mile (1.6 km) north to south.  The militia was disbanded in late November.. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. With peace restored, Smith's group returned to Caldwell County. , On September 20, 1838, about one hundred fifty armed men rode into De Witt and demanded that the Mormons leave within ten days. On August 19, 1838, Mormon settler Smith Humphrey reports that 100 armed men led by Colonel William Claude Jones took him prisoner for two hours and threatened him and the rest of the Mormon community.. , General Clark viewed Executive Order 44 as having been fulfilled by the agreement of the Mormons to evacuate the state the following spring. Thomas B. Marsh, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church, and fellow Apostle Orson Hyde were alarmed by the activities which had taken place in Daviess County.  Based on the available evidence, LeSueur estimates that Mormons were responsible for the burning of fifty homes or shops and the displacement of one hundred non-Mormon families.  Reynolds discovered a revolver at the scene, still loaded with buckshot. Hey guys, in this episode we’re going to talk about the Missouri Mormon War of 1838. John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering around the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. , The defendants, consisting of about 60 men including Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, were turned over to a civil court of inquiry in Richmond under Judge Austin A. After several non-Mormons made statements to the authorities that Johnson had acted as a moderating influence on the Danites, he was allowed to escape rather than stand trial. ... On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to the Missourian settlements of Gallatin, Millport and Grindstone Fork.  Two days after Rigdon preached his Salt Sermon, 80 prominent Mormons, including Hyrum Smith, signed the so-called Danite Manifesto, which warned the dissenters to "depart or a more fatal calamity shall befall you". The refinement, the charity of our age, will not brook it.. Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. , Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. When events in Daviess County caused Missourians to see the Mormon community as a violent threat, non-Mormon public opinion hardened in favor of a firm military response.  The mob gave no quarter. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, and as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, and next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages. "Autobiographical Remarks by Ebenezer Robinson (1832–1843)". Clark V. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833-1838 Missouri Conflict, Religious Studies Center, BYU, 1992. , Meanwhile, a group of non-Mormons from Clinton, Platte, and other counties began to harass Mormons in Daviess County, burning outlying homes and plundering property. , Black and others filed complaints against Smith and the other identifiable Mormon participants. The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter Day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the US state of Missouri. John Whitmer recounts that Smith bribed the guards. In Livingston County, a group of armed men forced Asahel Lathrop from his home, where they held his ill wife and children prisoner. Other Mormons, fearing similar retribution by the Missourians, gathered into Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County. On October 29, this large vigilante band of some 250 men assembled and entered eastern Caldwell County. Nearly every one was burned. Although county officials could only legally act within the county, this judge authorized Hinkle to defend Latter-day Saint settlements in neighboring Daviess County.. Even militia commanders such as Clark, Doniphan, and Atchison who were sympathetic to the Mormons came to see a military response as the only way to bring the situation under control.. On August 6, 1838, the war began following a brawl at an election in Gallatin, resulting in increased organized violence between Mormons and non-Mormons backed by the Missouri Volunteer Militia in northwestern Missouri. Latter Day Saints established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County.  None of these claims, however, purport to be eye-witness accounts. See this page in the original 1992 publication. , During the days that followed, Latter Day Saint vigilantes under the direction and encouragement of Lyman Wight drove Missourians who lived in outlying farms from their homes, which were similarly plundered and burned. , Joseph Smith Jr attempted to negotiate with Lucas, but it became clear that Lucas considered his conditions to be non-negotiable.  The crowd dispersed, and the Mormons returned to their homes. Citizens in Saline, Howard, Jackson, Chariton, Ray, and other nearby counties organized vigilance committees sympathetic to the Carroll County expulsion party.  Judge Austin A King, who had been assigned the cases of the Mormons charged with offenses during the conflict, warned "If you once think to plant crops or to occupy your lands any longer than the first of April, the citizens will be upon you: they will kill you every one, men, women and children.". After the court martial, he ordered General Alexander William Doniphan: You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the public square of Far West and shoot them at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning.. , With the refusal of the Governor or Legislature to intervene, and having surrendered the bulk of their firearms, Mormons were left nearly defenseless to face the mob. They asked if the rumor was true and demanded that he sign a document disavowing any connection to the vigilance committees. Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, which was immediately labeled as an "insurrection," and was put down by the activated militia of the county. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West, which became the new headquarters of the church. , As tensions built in Daviess County, other counties began to respond to Carroll County's request for assistance in expelling the Mormons from their county. John Whitmer recounts that Smith bribed the guards. The refinement, the charity of our age, will not brook it..  On October 24, they swore out affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. Parks wrote his superior, General David Rice Atchison, that "a word from his Excellency would have more power to quell this affair than a regiment. Rumors among both parties spread that there were casualties in the conflict. Boggs held strong preconceptions against the Latter Day Saints, dating from the time when both he and they had lived in Jackson County, and the governor believed the reports. On May 6, 1842, Boggs was shot in the head at his home three blocks from Temple Lot. ", On October 1, the mob burned the home and stables of Smith Humphrey. On the Mormon side, Danite leader Gideon Carter was killed in the battle and nine other Mormons were wounded, including Patten, who soon after died from his wounds. Dunn, acting under the orders of Doniphan, continued on to Adam-ondi-Ahman. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, and as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, and next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages. Black refused, but after meeting with Smith, he wrote and signed a document stating that he "is not attached to any mob, nor will attach himself to any such people, and so long as they [the Mormons] will not molest me, I will not molest them. Joseph Smith, returning to Far West from De Witt, was informed by General Doniphan of the deteriorating situation. The soldiers also turned their horses into our fields of corn.. The Mormons believed—after a revelation recorded on June 6, 1831—that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others ("which is now the land of your enemies") in Missouri. , Local citizens were outraged by the actions of the Danites and other Mormon bands. King, on charges of treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny and perjury. , At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, and other leaders left at Far West warned the veterans of Crooked River to flee. Despite an attempt by the Mormons to parley, the mob attacked. Exaggerated initial reports indicated that nearly all of Bogart's company had been killed. When the Missourian raiders approached the settlement on the afternoon of October 30, some 30 to 40 Latter Day Saint families were living or encamped there. According to Hinkle, Smith wanted a treaty with the Missourians "on any terms short of battle. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. , When about thirty Latter Day Saints approached the polling place, a Missourian named Dick Weldon declared that in Clay County the Mormons had not been allowed to vote, "no more than negroes". ", http://web.archive.org/web/20110427055325/http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MO/Miss1881.htm, Office of the Secretary of State of Missouri 1841, http://web.archive.org/web/20110515042529/http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/MO/Miss1838.htm, http://www.cumorah.org/libros/ingles/Regional_Studies_in_LDS_History_Missouri_-_Various_authors.html#29423, "The Extermination Order and How it was Rescinded", http://web.archive.org/web/20110526042751/http://www.jwha.info/mmff/exorder.htm, http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/findingaids/miscMormRecs/eo/19760625_RescisOrder.pdf, http://www.boap.org/LDS/Early-Saints/JWhitmer-history.html, http://www.mormonhistoricsitesfoundation.org/publications/studies_spring_01/MHS2.1Black.pdf, "Regional Studies in latter-day Saint History: Missouri", http://www.cumorah.org/libros/ingles/Regional_Studies_in_LDS_History_Missouri_-_Various_authors.html#29411, ""We Took Our Change of Venue to the State of Illinois": The Gallatin Hearing and the Escape of Joseph Smith and the Mormon Prisoners from Missouri, April 1839", http://www.mormonhistoricsites.org/publications/studies_spring_01/MHS2.1Baugh.pdf, http://books.google.com/books?id=_izMO9Xdq2UC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false, http://www.amazon.com/Mormon-Conflict-Norman-Furniss/dp/B004CPPDWO/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1302193763&sr=8-2, "Facts Relative to the Expulsion of the Mormons or Latter Day Saints, from the State of Missouri, under the "Exterminating Order"", http://patriot.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/NCMP1820-1846&CISOPTR=2834&REC=16, "Missouri's 1838 Extermination Order and the Mormons' Forced Removal to Illinois", http://www.mormonhistoricsitesfoundation.org/publications/studies_spring_01/spring_01.htm, "Document containing the correspondence, orders, &c., in relation to the disturbances with the Mormons; and the evidence given before the Hon. Ironically, as a result of his kindness, he was the only Mormon who was positively identified to have participated in the home burnings. , None of the Missourians were ever prosecuted for their role in the Haun's Mill Massacre. Atchison said further, "I would respectfully suggest to your Excellency the propriety of a visit to the scene of excitement in person, or at all events, a strong proclamation" as the only way to restore peace and the rule of law. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. The Livingston men became thoroughly imbued with the same spirit, and were eager for the raid ... feel[ing] an extraordinary sympathy for the outrages suffered by their neighbors, Although it had just been issued, it is unlikely that the governor's "Extermination Order" would have already reached these men, and in any event it would not have authorized them to cross into Caldwell County to raid. 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